Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit in throwing athletes: current perspectives
Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) is an adaptive process in which the throwing shoulder experiences a loss of internal rotation (IR). GIRD has most commonly been defined by a loss of >20° of IR compared to the contralateral shoulder. Total rotational motion of the shoulder is the sum of internal and external rotation and may be more important than the absolute value of IR loss. Pathologic GIRD has been defined as a loss of IR combined with a loss of total rotational motion. The leading pathologic process in GIRD is posterior capsular and rotator-cuff tightness, due to the repetitive cocking that occurs with the overhead throwing motion. GIRD has been associated with numerous pathologic conditions, including posterior superior labral tears, partial articular-sided rotator-cuff tears, and superior labral anterior-to-posterior tears. The mainstay of treatment for patients with GIRD is posterior capsular stretching and strengthening to improve scapular mechanics. In patients who fail nonoperative therapy, shoulder arthroscopy can be performed. Arthroscopic surgery in the high-level throwing athlete should be to restore them to their functional baseline with the minimum amount of intervention possible.
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|Subjects:||throws movement movement co-ordination shoulder analysis biomechanics function baseball handball therapy|
|Notations:||strength and speed sports sport games biological and medical sciences|
|Published in:||Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine|